In accordance with the recommendations of Pinkel, 147 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia were treated by a combined cytostatic and radiation therapy during a joint study between May 1971 and Jan. 1, 1974. After a primary cytostatical treatment which brought about a remission of 94% of the patients within four to six weeks, the cranial irradiation was performed, depending on age, with a focal dose of 1500 up to 2400 rd in the course of three or four weeks. Simultaneously, the patients were given methotrexate intrathecally which was followed, later on, by a long-term therapy with cytostatics. By means of this combined treatment, a three-year survival was obtained in 50% (8 of 16) and a complete remission in 44% (7 of 16). The prognosis is the same for boys as for girls. A less favorable prognosis concerns the patients with an initial leukocytosisf more than 50 000 leukocytes/mm3 of blood, an age of more than ten years, and leukemic cells already demonstrable in the cerebrospinal fluid.
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